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#Slovakia - A year on, an EU initiative helped improve the economy and everyday life in Prešov region



The European Commission is taking stock of the first year of implementation of the ‘Catching up Regions Initiative' in the Prešov region. This Slovak ‘low-income region', which GDP is rapidly growing but remains well under the EU and Slovak average, has been benefiting from Commission and World Bank expertise to boost jobs and growth. The second phase of the initiative will start next month.

Regional Policy Commissioner Corina Crețu said: "The Catching up Regions initiative shows that Cohesion Policy is not a one-size-fits-all policy. It is able to adapt to specific regional needs and I am glad to see the impressive results the initiative has had in the Prešov region. This is also thanks to the great co-operation between Commission and World Bank experts and the regional authorities: congratulations to all!”

The experts have helped regional authorities design an action plan for economic transformation, including structural reforms in order to improve the local investment environment. €1.3 million from EU funds supported the design and implementation of this action plan. Here are some of the results:

More investments in the skills of the local labour force

To address the mismatch between educational offer and labour market demand and improve the skills of the local labour force, the region invested EU funds in five schools so they adapt their vocational education and training (VET) curricula. This will help train pupils for the jobs of tomorrow, in such fields as mechanical engineering, agri-food, bioeconomy, gastronomy, crafts and services.

A more efficient management of energy in the region

The region has developed an Energy Management System, which will systematically assess the region's 488 public buildings' energy consumption and identify opportunities for more energy savings. The aim is to roll out the system to other Slovak regions, which also need to boost their energy efficiency.

A new regional data system to improve decision-making

The region now employs a team of experts managing geographical data and opted for open source software. Thanks to these changes, the region has managed to overcome a previous lack of data. This way, the authorities are now in a position to make evidence-based decisions for regional development.

Next steps

The implementation of the second phase of the Catching-up Regions Initiative in Slovakia will start as of July 2019 for another year, with €2 million from EU funds. The focus will be on:

a)   Rolling out the results of the work in the Prešov region to the Banská Bystrica region, focusing mainly on vocational education and training (VET), sustainable mobility, as well as research and innovation;

b)   extending the work on VET, geographic information systems and regional development activities such as tourism in the Prešov region, and;

c)    starting new projects in Prešov, especially targeting the integration of marginalized Roma communities and administrative capacity-building in the Prešov regional office.


In June 2015, the Commission launched a broad initiative to examine the factors that hold back growth and investment in low-growth and low-income regions in the EU.

Low-growth regions have a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of up to 90% of the EU average but a persistent lack of growth, while low-income regions' GDP per head is growing, but still below 50% of the EU average. These regions are home to 83 million inhabitants, i.e. 1 out of 6 EU residents.

A Commission's report published in April 2017 detailed the investment needs, growth determinants, macro-economic framework and need for structural reforms in these regions. Regions in Poland, Romania and Slovakia have already benefitted from the initiative.

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Brexit - EU starts infringement process for UK's failure to act in good faith



As anticipated, the European Commission today (1 October) has sent the United Kingdom a letter of formal notice for breaching its obligations under the Withdrawal Agreement. This marks the beginning of a formal infringement process against the United Kingdom. It has one month to reply to today's letter.

The Withdrawal Agreement states that the European Union and the United Kingdom must take all appropriate measures to ensure the fulfilment of the obligations under the Agreement (Article 5). Both parties are bound by the obligation to cooperate in good faith in carrying out the tasks stemming from the Withdrawal Agreement and must refrain from any measures which could jeopardise the attainment of those objectives.

The UK government tabled the UK Internal Market Bill on 9 September the Commission consider this a  flagrant violation of the Protocol on Ireland Northern Ireland, as it would allow the UK authorities to disregard the legal effect of the Protocol's substantive provisions. Representatives of the UK government have acknowledged this violation, stating that its purpose was to allow it to depart in a permanent way from the obligations stemming from the Protocol.

The UK government has failed to withdraw the contentious parts of the Bill, despite requests by the European Union. By doing so, the UK has breached its obligation to act in good faith, as set out in Article 5 of the Withdrawal Agreement.
Next steps

The UK has until the end of this month to submit its observations to the letter of formal notice. After examining these observations, or if no observations have been submitted, the Commission may, if appropriate, decide to issue a Reasoned Opinion.


The Withdrawal Agreement was ratified by both the EU and the UK. It entered into force on 1 February 2020 and has legal effects under international law.

Following the publication by the UK government of the draft ‘United Kingdom Internal Market Bill' on 9 September 2020, Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič called for an extraordinary meeting of the EU-UK Joint Committee to request the UK government to elaborate on its intentions and to respond to the EU's serious concerns. The meeting took place in London on 10 September between Michael Gove, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič.

At the meeting, Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič stated that if the Bill were to be adopted, it would constitute an extremely serious violation of the Withdrawal Agreement and of international law. He called on the UK government to withdraw these measures from the draft Bill in the shortest time possible and in any case by the end of the month of September.

At the third ordinary meeting of the Joint Committee on 28 September 2020, Vice-President Maroš Šefčovič again called on the UK government to withdraw the contentious measures from the bill. The UK government on this occasion confirmed its intention to go ahead with the draft legislation.

The Withdrawal Agreement provides that during the transition period, the Court of Justice of the European Union has jurisdiction and the Commission has the powers conferred upon it by Union law in relation to the United Kingdom, also as regards the interpretation and application of that Agreement.

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EU countries test their ability to co-operate in the event of cyber attacks



EU member states, the EU Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) and the European Commission have met to test and assess their co-operation capabilities and resilience in the event of a cybersecurity crisis. The exercise, organized by the Netherlands with the support of ENISA, is a key milestone towards the completion of  relevant operating procedures. The latter are developed in the framework of the NIS Co-operation Group, under the leadership of France and Italy, and aim for more coordinated information sharing and incident response among EU cybersecurity authorities.

Furthermore, member states, with the support of ENISA, launched today the Cyber Crisis Liaison Organization Network (CyCLONe) aimed at facilitating cooperation in case of disruptive cyber incidents.

Internal Market Commissioner Thierry Breton said: “The new Cyber Crisis Liaison Organization Network indicates once again an excellent cooperation between the member states and the EU institutions in ensuring that our networks and critical systems are cyber secure. Cybersecurity is a shared responsibility and we should work collectively in preparing and implementing rapid emergency response plans, for example in case of a large-scale cyber incident or crisis.”

ENISA Executive Director Juhan Lepassaar added: "Cyber crises have no borders. The EU Agency for Cybersecurity is committed to support the Union in its response to cyber incidents. It is important that the national cybersecurity agencies come together to coordinate decision-making at all levels. The CyCLONe group addresses this missing link.”

The CyCLONe Network will ensure that information flows more efficiently among different cybersecurity structures in the member states and will allow to better coordinate national response strategies and impact assessments. Moreover, the exercise organized follows up on the Commission's recommendation on a Coordinated Response to Large Scale Cybersecurity Incidents and Crises (Blueprint) that was adopted in 2017.

More information is available in this ENISA press release. More information on the EU cybersecurity strategy can be found in these Q&A and this brochure.

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Commission approves €32 million Polish aid scheme to compensate airports for damage suffered due to coronavirus outbreak



The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, a PLN 142 million (approximately €32m) Polish aid scheme to compensate airports for the damage suffered due to the coronavirus outbreak. In order to limit the spread of the coronavirus, on 15 March 2020, Poland banned all international and domestic air passenger services at Polish airports. The flight restrictions were progressively lifted as of 1 June 2020, but certain travel warnings, travel bans and restrictive measures remained in place until the end of June 2020.

This resulted in high operating losses for the operators of Polish airports. Under the scheme, the Polish authorities will be able to compensate airports for the revenue losses suffered during the period between 15 March and 30 June 2020, as a result of the restrictive measures on international and domestic air passenger services implemented by Poland. The support will take the form of direct grants.

The scheme includes a claw-back mechanism, whereby any possible public support in excess of the actual damage received by the beneficiaries will have to be paid back to the Polish State. The risk of the state aid exceeding the damage is therefore excluded. The Commission assessed the measure under Article 107(2)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which enables the Commission to approve state aid measures granted by member states to compensate specific companies or specific sectors (in the form of schemes) for the damage directly caused by restrictive measures taken in exceptional occurrences, such as the coronavirus outbreak.

The Commission found that the  scheme notified by Poland will provide compensation for damage that is directly linked to the coronavirus outbreak. It also found that the measure is proportionate, as the compensation does not exceed what is necessary to make good the damage. On this basis, the Commission concluded that the aid is in line with EU state aid rules. More information will be available on the Commission's competition website, in the public case register under the case number SA.58212 once confidentiality issues have been resolved.

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